Atmospheric A-bomb testing in Nevada during the 1950s released 150 million Curies of iodine-131, approximately 15 times the amount released by the Chernobyl meltdown. Downwind fallout heavily contaminated much of the U.S. milk supply with I-131 and strontium-90; New York State was one of the more affected areas. See 1997 report to Congress by the National Cancer Institute. Eight years later NAS issued a report claiming that "in most cases, it is unlikely that exposure to radiation from fallout was a substantial contributing cause to developing cancer." This ridiculous statement contrasts with NCI's determination that millions of Americans, young to old, were exposed to individual fallout doses up to 16 rems (twice the average lifetime background exposure). The resulting collective population dose is clearly in the millions of rems.
The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research estimates the global radiation doses from the atmospheric testing by the five nuclear-weapon states that are parties to the Nonproliferation Treaty to be about 544 million person-rems (TCDE to the year 2100). Using EPA's cancer risk coefficients, the range of global cancer deaths as a result of nuclear testing fallout is conservatively between 200,000 and half a million. See "A Readiness to Harm" in IEER's January 2006 issue of SDA.
Strange, we are obsessed with the 3,000 murdered on 9-11, yet the institutionalized killing of 100 times as many innocent bystanders by these five governments goes largely unnoticed.